TBGA/Tape Ball Grid Array (BGA) PCBA Package Overview

TBGA stands for Tape Ball Grid Array packaging which is part of the electronic chip carriers group which uses circuitized flex or tape for die carriers mounted on PCB board. Previously TPGA was known as Signetics TBGA, Wire Bond TBGA, Flex BGA, and Area Array Tape Automated Bonding. But, Tape Ball Grid Array is a very commonly used acronym for this packaging. It was first used by JEDEC (Joint Electron Device Engineering Council) for its standard package outline. This module uses circuitized flex as chip carriers so mostly referred as Flex BGA or FBGA.

It is part of thinner products to have strong core material that provides good heat dissipation and high-level electrical connectivity features. Since the chip that completes the IC programming has to be turned up/down, this fact is to evaluate the product while keeping the cost-optimized. If the chips are facing up, wire bonding is used and if the chips are facing down, a chip flip approach is used for TBGA.

Tape Ball Grid Array package

Introduction to Tape Ball Grid Array

The development history of tape ball grid array in PCBA industry

Tape Ball Grid Array technology was an extension of Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) that failed to provide its features less cost construction, high input and outputs, high-level operation, and single-chip carrier. The TAB technology fell short of expectations due to the high costs associated with connecting the carrier to the card, especially when mixed chip carrier and carrier technologies were needed on the same card. The assembly process of the TAB card was not according to SMT assembly, instruments, and process.

The incompatibility causes some consequences like advanced instruments needed with extra capital charges, larger space needed to install extra instruments and machines, and reduced throughput due to multi-step assembly decreased due to difficult handling and bonding fragile, 35um thick TAB copper wire. Though the component perspective could be met, but the creation of costly cards results in an increment of net charges. On the basis of these factors, it does not say that TAB is not used or has been finished. It is still used in different types of packaging services like for applications where the primary packaging driver is weight and flexibility.

The main applications of TAB are hearing aids, medical instruments, wristwatches, arm-electronics, different sensors, and display screens. But TAB technology also has the infrastructure for construction, testing, handling, shipment, and other services of circuitized flexible tape.

Application of TBGA technology in electronics

The connection between TBGA and PCB is made through the solder balls array. Currently used surface mount array packaging known as BGAs and CSPs. The CSP is employed of 1.2X die size and ball grid less than 1.27mm. Like that BGA causes the shrinking of standard surface mount and PGA, CSPs are the “downsizing” of BGA packages. It is in line with the system’s need for thin, small-size, fewer-weight components.  CSP miniaturization is achieved by fanning the I/O devices inwards under the die, whereas in BGA packages they are fanned outwards.

When it comes to BGA at first, BGA assembly will be one of the key points. So BGA assembly can come up to the standards that more traditional SMT packages could be as the pads are not accessible in a normal way. And with the improvement of BGA assembly methods, it’s more reliable to solder BGA. The following are the application fields and scopes of tape ball grid arrays listed by FS Technology:

  • Its main applications a range of 208 to 700 input and output work as two-level metal chip carriers, and provides good electricity, thermal operations and high reliability;
  • Its polyimide flex substrate makes it less expensive than other BGAs. Currently, single-level metallic wire bonds and thermo compression bonds make TBGA less expensive than laminate BGA;
  • The modules that have pinouts up to ninety-six are 1.02 millimeters from the ball grid mating plane to the top surface of the part and up to 280 I/O only 1.0 mm;
  • Thin, less-weight over-molded designs compete with traditional molded quad flat packages (QFP) and direct the requirements of the portable consumer industry like mobile phones, PC laptops, digital cameras, pagers, video cameras, etc.;
  • Tape Ball Grid Array chip carries employed for the packaging of ASIC modules, like microcontrollers, processes are used in different operations and embedded applications;
  • Different types of servers, PCs, workstations, and communication devices use this packaging.

Tape Ball Grid Array Assembly

The assembly of the Tape Ball Grid Array is the main factor to make it effective for any application. Thus, the TBGA assembly can meet traditional SMT packages’ standards since the pads are not accessible in the normal way. The enhancement of TBGA assembly techniques makes reliable the soldering process of TBGA.

If you make your turnkey PCBA order at FS-PCBA.COM, we will get a detailed overview of your board desing and make any considerations related to TBGA components during PCB manufacturing. The quality of BGA assembly is affected by some factors like the compatibility of PCB laminate material, surface treatment effects, maximum deformation requirement, and solder mask clearance.

Maybe you have some TBGA for your PCBs that need PCBA. But FS-PCBA.COM will have a high level of tape ball grid array soldering process to evaluate and test components of the assembly. With that, we are committed to the highest standards in PCB manufacturing and assembly, providing you with the best customer experience from quote to delivery.

TBGA  structure

TBGA or Tape Ball Grid Array comes in a cavity structure. Two types of interconnection between substrate and chip are used for TBGA first one is inverted solder bonding and the second one is lead bonding. Chip is connected in a wiring belt created with flexible multiple layers.

The solder ball of the circuit board used as the I/O end of the circuit is installed under the flexible carrier belt. Its thick sealing cover plate is a radiator and also strengthens the encapsulation structure so that the solder ball configured under the flexible substrate provides good coplanability.  Chip bonding on the copper core cavity heatsink. Chip bond pad interconnects wires and multi-layer flexible wiring are used to configure the interconnect.  The sealant as covered used for lead, circuit chip, and flexible pad

Features of tape ball grid array assembly

  • The TBGA has a covered soler ball arranged under an encapsulated substrate in the shape of a carry, which enhances the input and output terminals, reduces the size and area for assembly;
  • Its high packing output decreases the PCBA production charges;
  • The connection surface between an array of TBGA welding balls and substrates is larger and shorter that works as a heat dissipator;
  • The pin pf array welding is smaller that decreases the path for signal transmission with that reduces lead inductance, and electrical resistance and enhances circuit operation;
  • It enhances the copanability of input and output terminals and decreases losses that are resultant of coplanability during the manufacturing process;
  • TBGA is part of MCM and provides the high density and high operation of MCM.

What can TBGA assembly bring to your electronics project?

  • Its flexible loading of packaging and thermal operation of the circuit board is good;
  • When reflow soldering is applying self-aligning of the solder ball and surface tension of the solder ball used to get alignment for the solder ball and pad;
  • It is a less expensive type of BGA. Two-level metallic TBGA is less expensive than other types of BGA and ceramic structure and laminate are also less expensive;
  • Its heat dissipation is better than PBGA or Plastic Ball Grid Array.

What you need to pay attention to for TBGA PCBA?

  • Its reliability decreases due to its different materials and multi-stage combinations;
  • Please do not use this PCBA in high humidity environment as it is moisture sensitive.

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