Type of PCB
FS Tech is the china based PCB supplier that was established in 2004 as Integrated Electronics Manufacturer. We can not only provide comprehensive assembly services, but also produce various types of PCB boards.
Manufacturable PCB Type
In terms of Производство печатных плат, you can get up to 1-58L rigid board, 1-6L flex board, 2-10L rigid-flex board, 1-2L aluminum/copper board (36/10) from FS Technology. In addition to the above PCB types, We also provide almost all types of PCBs that are commonly used in the industry also with high-quality materials that are needed for industry demands and uses. The following are the PCB types that FS Technology can manufacture. If you are interested in our products, you can click the link to enter the details page.
Differentiation of PCB types
Hard and soft category of PCB
According to the different soft and hard processes of printed circuit boards, we divide them into flexible boards, rigid boards, and flexible and rigid boards. These three types of boards have different properties, features, advantages and disadvantages. Next, we will explain the concepts of these types of PCBs for you:
Rigid PCB: Among the most common types
Rigid PCBs are probably the most manufactured of all circuit types. Its structure is sturdy but inflexible and cannot be changed to other shapes and forms after construction is complete. This type of circuit board has a simple structure and is less difficult to manufacture. There is almost no limit on the number of layers, and single-layer, double-layer or multi-layer circuits can be easily constructed. The rigid PCB layer consists of three parts, the substrate, the copper solder mask, and the top silkscreen. It is very common, the green motherboard used in our computer is a Rigid board.
This simple and inexpensive type of circuit board is found in almost every electronic product in sight, including: X-ray machines, mobile phones, laptop computers, sensors and communication equipment, etc.
Flexible PCB: foldable circuit type
We call this type of foldable circuit a flexible circuit, flexible PCB or FPC. It is made of polyimide or polyester film with a polymer coating attached to the surface to protect the conductive circuit. Using this type of PCB that can be modified and changed into other structures and shapes in electronics projects can save costs by reducing the size of the project and using fewer components. Because of its flexible characteristics it does not provide higher reliability, so it is often used in combination with rigid plates and forms a wider range of forms.
Flexible PCBA are commonly used in consumer electronics, radio frequency and microwave applications and play a pivotal role in the medical industry.
Rigid-Flexible PCB: The Propeller of Microelectronics
The rigid-flex PCB type is the broader form mentioned above. These Rigid Flex PCBs are created through the use of rigid and flexible boards combined with a single platform. Electronics manufacturers manufacture circuit boards for electronic products with both flexible and rigid qualities depending on the needs of the project. These manufactured boards have a flexible portion attached with a rigid material that helps draw closed conductor layers, thus creating a small footprint board. Although rigid-flex circuits are expensive, due to the elimination of connectors, the electronic products manufactured through them are lighter and are a more contemporary circuit board type.
This expensive PCB type is often used in high-tech equipment, such as high-precision military equipment, wearable medical electronic equipment, and mmWave PCBA in 5G base stations.
PCB Types by Layer
Printed circuit boards can be built in different layers depending on the requirements of the project and structure, including: single layer, double layer and multi-layer. Even if the manufacturer will try to meet the customer’s requirements on the number of layers as much as possible, it will still be limited by its own manufacturing capacity and materials. Below are the PCB categories by layer:
Single Layer PCB board: Circuits for low-end electronics
Because the components of this simple circuit board are gathered on one side of the board, and its wires are gathered on the other side, it is called a single-sided or single-layer board. Only one layer of this board has a copper layer at the substrate material. It is very commonly used in the electronics industry due to its cheap price and simple creation. As these boards come in a single layer so there is no intersection between the conductive layers that require larger areas for these boards. Either SMD or THT packages can be used in these PCBs.
Because the components of this simple circuit board are gathered on one side of the board, and its wires are gathered on the other side, it is called a single-sided or single-layer board. Only one layer of this board has a copper layer at the substrate material. It is very commonly used in the electronics industry due to its cheap price and simple creation. As these boards come in a single layer so there is no intersection between the conductive layers that require larger areas for these boards.
Advantages of single-sided PCB:
- It is the easiest to design and manufacture of all circuit boards
- Due to its simple structure, it is extremely cost-effective for mass production
- The testing process is simple and easy to modify after problems are identified
Disadvantages of single-sided PCB
- The number of PCB components that can be used is limited
- The scope of application is small, and it is not suitable for complex applications
Double-Layer PCB board: Simple circuit structure type
The board that has two-sided copper layers to make circuits with the connection of components is called a double-sided or double-layered boards. This kind of PCB has a conductive layer and a solder mask on each side of a single base layer. Electronic components are soldered on both sides of the PCB. Conductive holes are drilled and used to interact with two conductive layers.
Advantages of Double Sided PCB
- Reduces the size of PCB
- Increases the density of PCB
- Brings more flexibility in design
- More efficiently, allows fabricating complex designs
- Cost effective, aids in routing where there are more components and less space clearance
Multilayer PCB board: The most complex type of circuit structure
If the PCB has more than 2 conductive layers then such boards are called multilayer PCBs. Due to its unique Процесс производства печатных плат, the number of layers in a PCB is usually an even number. The structure of these boards is like a sandwich that has many double-sided layers with insulation materials among them. All layers are interconnected with the help conductive hole like in the case of a double-sided PCB. Higher layer counts are the basis for electronic engineers to design more complex products, while also making their jobs difficult.
Advantages of Multilayer Board Design
- Increase design flexibility
- It is a prerequisite for the production of smaller but more powerful electronic devices.
- High-speed layouts that cannot be achieved with single- or double-layered boards can be achieved with this type of design
Types of PCB substrate materials
There are different types of materials offered by FS Technology for PCB creation that is explained here. Almost all types of materials used in the PCB can be ordered by us to use in your projects. We will help to select the required materials for your project’s needs and design configuration.
FR-4 Fiberglass board (High TG, Halogen-free)
Traditional FR-4 PCB: The full form of FR4 is flame retardant number 4 denotes the woven glass reinforced epoxy resin. Its main features are strength and resistance to moisture. It is used in PCB as an insulation provider and separates copper layers to make a connection with that enhances the strength of the boards.
High TG FR-4 PCB: High TG is a mechanical feature that denotes the glass transition that is the largest value of temperature for the substrate to maintain this state and not get affected by temperature. The value of conventional PCB having FR4 has TG value about 130 to 140 centigrade medium value for TG is 150 to 160 C and for high TG is larger than 170 centigrade. High TG boards come with a high value of heat absorbance ability and water resistance ability to normal FR4 PCB.
Halogen Free FR-4 PCB: Halogen-free material means that it does not contain halogen elements in the periodic table of elements including: fluorine (F), chlorine (CL), bromine (Br), iodine (1). Using halogen-free FR-4 PCB as your electronic components can prevent the release of toxic substances caused by circuit burning caused by PCB short circuit. In addition to being more secure, this type of circuit board also has the following advantages:
- FR-4 halogen-free epoxy board has good heat resistance and can withstand the environment of up to 150°C
- Extremely strong insulation performance, can withstand a breakdown voltage of 40KV
- Excellent water absorption, moisture resistance makes it last longer
PCB type of metal substrate material (Aluminum/Copper)
We often say that metal PCB means that the internal substrate material is metal, that is, copper substrate or aluminum substrate. Next, we briefly introduce these two metal PCB types:
Aluminum base PCBs: This kind of board is consists of a thinner layer of the substance having conductive nature. Aluminum PCB is also called Aluminum bases, Aluminum clad. The structure of aluminum PCB is like any other type of board. It uses a copper layer over that solder mask and at top silkscreen for component connection is used. Although this type of printed circuit board is very common, in most cases it is constructed as a single layer or double layer, because the manufacture of multilayer aluminum PCBs is very difficult and complex. This board is often used in applications that require strong heat dissipation, such as LEDs, due to its good heat dissipation performance.
Copper based PCBs: The most expensive type of metal circuit board with the highest quality heat dissipation. After they were invented, they are often used in high-frequency circuits, areas with large temperature differences, precision communication equipment, and construction industries. The composition of these boards is a 4-layer structure and its base material is called CCL. They are similar to FR4 board construction.
Polyimide: Comprehensive performance PCB type
The term polyimide is abbreviated as PI is an organic high molecular polymer material, which is composed of two parts, poly means polymer, imide means imide monomer and is produced by making these two different types of polymers. The heat resistance of this material can reach above 400 °C, the continuous high temperature resistance range is about 200-300 °C, and the dielectric loss is only 0.004-0.007, which belongs to F to H-level insulation. The common types of polyimide are 2nd Generation, 3rd Generation, and Filled Polyimide.
Ceramic substrate: PCB type with thermal conductivity up to about 220 W/M. K
The ceramic PCB is a printed wiring board with a thermal conductivity of 9-20 W/m.k prepared at less than 250 °C using thermally conductive ceramic powder and organic binders. In the manufacturing process of the ceramic substrate, the copper layer is attached to the alumina or SiC by applying high temperature. This board comes with features a high level of heat transfer than other boards with that has good electrical features. According to its constituent materials, this circuit board can be divided into three categories: alumina ceramic PCB, beryllium oxide ceramic PCB, aluminum nitride ceramic PCB. In addition, according to the proportion of alumina, it can be divided into 75%, 96%, and 99.5% alumina ceramic PCB.
Teflon: A kind of high frequency PCB material
Teflon PCB uses polytetrafluoroethylene or polytetrafluoroethylene as the base material, a synthetic resin material, this circuit board material is known for its non-stick and non-reactive surface. Teflon PCB material can easily handle high and low temperature environments, and is often regarded as the first choice for high-frequency electronic applications due to its low dissipation factor and low thermal expansion coefficient. It has the ability to communicate signals at frequencies above five gigahertz so the most common applications are radio frequency circuits and mmWave PCBA.
PTFE: The full form of PTFE is Polytetrafluoroethylene and used for Teflon PCB construction. Its common applications are high-speed electronics projects. For circuits where RF and microwave signals are used FR4 material board will be expensive and also lose signal so PTFE is a fine option. Since PTFE increases the dielectric constant value then is good over the FR4.
Rogers PCB is a special type of circuit board, developed and manufactured by Rogers, mainly for high-speed and high-frequency applications. This board contains an epoxy resin core, metal clad copper and aluminum. Rogers PCB have a constant temperature value, lower dielectric loss, and also provide good dielectric strength to the board. We can use Rogers on FR4 for different dielectric constant values. The value of the dielectric constant is about 2.55-10.2.
Taconic PCB: One of the microwave radio frequency circuits
This is a circuit board that uses Taconic(TLX-8，TLX-9) as the substrate material, these substances are called ceramic filled PTFE. Taconic Corporation became a leading supplier to the food processing industry by pioneering the manufacture of PTFE coated fabrics and other high temperature/nonstick materials. Taconic PCB laminates can be milled, plated and sheared using standard methods. Like other high-frequency materials (Arlon, Rogers) Taconic laminates are microwave/RF PCB materials that are often used in telecommuting and aerospace projects.
Arlon: Premium high frequency board material type
Arlon(35N，85N) is PCB material that is used to make high operation laminations and prepreg materials that are used in different projects based on PCB. These materials offer good features such as thermal, and mechanical strength than the FR4. This substrate exists in different types like woven glass and non-woven aramid. Common applications are in the military used instruments, heat sinks, and HDI in some communication projects.
Panasonic: One of the largest electrical brands in Japan
The Panasonic R-5575 comes in multiple layers structure with fewer losses and high-speed halogen-free material. Its common projects are radio antenna. It used or miniaturizing of PCB boards. Its other features are good thermal behaviors and anti-aging factors. This material has resistance to water. Its surface resistance value is1 x 10^8 Ω.
CME 1: Materials for building a simple PCB
CME1 is a substrate material type used only for building industrial single-layer PCBs. The main reason for using CME 1 in single-layer boards is because it is a more cost-effective material, which is often used to make cheaper and simpler PCB boards. The construction of these materials is very simple and has the ability to bear a large number of components so many components for single layer PCB can be assembled on the board.
CME 3: Cost-effective printed circuit board material
This material is used for two layers boards that come in white colors, and glass epoxy configurations. Its mechanical strength is less than the FR4 but prices are low and can be the finest option than FR4.
Types of PCBs differentiated by function
High frequency PCB: Types of circuits to solve signaling problems in electronics
High-frequency PCB is a high-end circuit board type used to solve the transmission of large amounts of data. The electronic products of this circuit board include the following common points:
- Signal transmission speed greater than 12Gbps
- Use this high frequency PCB type
Characteristics that high frequency PCB must have
- The DK value is small and stable. Too high or the DK value fluctuates significantly due to the change of frequency, which will cause signal transmission delay.
- For this type of PCB, the DF value is extra important and the quality of the signal transmission is controlled by it
- The thermal expansion coefficient of this high frequency PCB should be the same as that of copper foil. If the two are different, the copper foil may be separated due to the alternating hot and cold phenomenon when the electronic product is running.
- Low water absorption. When this circuit board works in a humid environment, it will absorb moisture from the air, and the end result is that the DK and DF values are affected.
- Good heat resistance, chemical resistance, impact resistance, peel resistance, this requirement is almost the same as other kinds of PCB.
Materials that can be used to make this PCB
- Rogers 4350B HF, RO3001, RO3003
- ISOLA IS620 Electronic Fiber Glass
- Taconic RF-35 Ceramic
- Taconic TLX
Application scenarios of high frequency PCB
- High frequency data line
- Automotive Radar System
- Cellular telecommunication system
- Power Amplifiers and Antennas
- E-band point-to-point microwave links
- RFID tags
- mmWave applications
IMS PCB: Types of Enhanced Standby Time
As PCBA companies gradually attach importance to the thermal management performance of PCBs, IMS PCB, a circuit board type with efficient thermal management capabilities, has begun to be respected. Due to this unique advantage, IMS PCBA can maximize the power of electronic products. The following are the advantages and application areas of this type of PCB board summarized by FS Technology:
Advantages of this type of printed circuit board:
- Excellent thermal conductivity: The thermal conductivity of aluminum substrate IMS is 8-12 times that of FR-4, and the thermal conductivity is as high as 2.2/m·K
- Obvious heat dissipation efficiency: The use of SMT PCB assembly technology can reduce the volume of the finished product by increasing the density of components, but it makes the PCB lose its heat dissipation capability. IMS Insulated Metal Substrates are experts in addressing these deficiencies. The use of this type of circuit board plays an important role in dissipating the heat generated by the operation of electronic components and accelerating the reduction of the operating temperature of electronic components
- Ultra-large current carrying capacity: For the metal substrate of IMS, it can carry a higher current with the same thickness and the same trace width, allowing the use of a voltage of 4500V
- Premium Substrate Material: This type of PCB is typically filled with aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron nitride, magnesium oxide, or silicon oxide
HDI PCB: Circuit type designed for compact electronic equipment
This type of circuit board adopts high-density interconnection technology, uses a traditional double-sided PCB as the substrate, and is formed by multiple layers of lamination. Compared with traditional FR-4 circuits, this board has the advantages of being thinner, lighter, smaller and denser. With the change of the tendency to use electronic products, electronics manufacturers strengthen their micro vias, line width, line spacing, and pad manufacturing capabilities, and transform to HDI PCB. This type of circuit board is often used in high-end control systems.
Different types of printed circuit boards that FS Technology can produce has greatly explained. We are offering PCB-based services with great accuracy and high-quality features since it is a reliable PCB provider in the industry that offers PCB manufacturing services to users’ requirements and demands. FS Technology is serving as one-stop solution PCBA service provider and also an overseas projects manager. We are equipped with professional engineers and the latest machines that are commonly used in the PCB industry to create professional PCBs.