Type of PCB

FS Tech é o fornecedor de PCB baseado em porcelana que foi estabelecido em 2004 como Fabricante de Electrónica Integrada. Podemos não só fornecer serviços completos de montagem, mas também produzir vários tipos de placas de PCB.

Manufacturable PCB Type

In terms of fabrico de PCB, you can get up to 1-58L rigid board, 1-6L flex board, 2-10L rigid-flex board, 1-2L aluminum/copper board (36/10) from FS Technology. In addition to the above PCB types, We also provide almost all types of PCBs that are commonly used in the industry also with high-quality materials that are needed for industry demands and uses. The following are the PCB types that FS Technology can manufacture. If you are interested in our products, you can click the link to enter the details page.

Differentiation of PCB types

Hard and soft category of PCB

According to the different soft and hard processes of printed circuit boards, we divide them into flexible boards, rigid boards, and flexible and rigid boards. These three types of boards have different properties, features, advantages and disadvantages. Next, we will explain the concepts of these types of PCBs for you:

Rigid PCB: Among the most common types

Rigid PCBs are probably the most manufactured of all circuit types. Its structure is sturdy but inflexible and cannot be changed to other shapes and forms after construction is complete. This type of circuit board has a simple structure and is less difficult to manufacture. There is almost no limit on the number of layers, and single-layer, double-layer or multi-layer circuits can be easily constructed. The rigid Camada PCB consists of three parts, the substrate, the copper solder mask, and the top silkscreen. It is very common, the green motherboard used in our computer is a Rigid board.

Isto simple and inexpensive type of circuit board is found in almost every electronic product in sight, including: X-ray machines, mobile phones, laptop computers, sensors and communication equipment, etc.

Flexible PCB: foldable circuit type

We call this type of foldable circuit a flexible circuit, flexible PCB or FPC. It is made of polyimide or polyester film with a polymer coating attached to the surface to protect the conductive circuit. Using this type of PCB that can be modified and changed into other structures and shapes in electronics projects can save costs by reducing the size of the project and using fewer components. Because of its flexible characteristics it does not provide higher reliability, so it is often used in combination with rigid plates and forms a wider range of forms. 

Flexible PCBA are commonly used in consumer electronics, radio frequency and microwave applications and play a pivotal role in the medical industry.

Rigid-Flexible PCB: The Propeller of Microelectronics

The rigid-flex PCB type is the broader form mentioned above. These Rigid Flex PCBs are created through the use of rigid and flexible boards combined with a single platform. Electronics manufacturers manufacture circuit boards for electronic products with both flexible and rigid qualities depending on the needs of the project. These manufactured boards have a flexible portion attached with a rigid material that helps draw closed conductor layers, thus creating a small footprint board. Although rigid-flex circuits are expensive, due to the elimination of connectors, the electronic products manufactured through them are lighter and are a more contemporary circuit board type.

Isto expensive PCB type is often used in high-tech equipment, such as high-precision military equipment, wearable medical electronic equipment, and mmWave PCBA in 5G base stations.

PCB Types by Layer

Printed circuit boards can be built in different layers depending on the requirements of the project and structure, including: single layer, double layer and multi-layer. Even if the manufacturer will try to meet the customer’s requirements on the number of layers as much as possible, it will still be limited by its own manufacturing capacity and materials. Below are the PCB categories by layer:

Single Layer PCB board: Circuits for low-end electronics

Because the components of this simple circuit board are gathered on one side of the board, and its wires are gathered on the other side, it is called a single-sided or single-layer board. Only one layer of this board has a copper layer at the substrate material. It is very commonly used in the electronics industry due to its cheap price and simple creation. As these boards come in a single layer so there is no intersection between the conductive layers that require larger areas for these boards. Either SMD or THT packages can be used in these PCBs. 

Because the components of this simple circuit board are gathered on one side of the board, and its wires are gathered on the other side, it is called a single-sided or single-layer board. Only one layer of this board has a copper layer at the substrate material. It is very commonly used in the electronics industry due to its cheap price and simple creation. As these boards come in a single layer so there is no intersection between the conductive layers that require larger areas for these boards.

Vantagens do PCB de uma só face:

  • É o mais fácil de conceber e fabricar de todas as placas de circuito
  • Devido à sua estrutura simples, é extremamente rentável para a produção em massa
  • O processo de teste é simples e fácil de modificar após a identificação dos problemas
 

Desvantagens do PCB de uma só face

  • O número de componentes PCB que podem ser utilizados é limitado
  • O âmbito de aplicação é pequeno, e não é adequado para aplicações complexas
 
Este tipo de placa é utilizado principalmente em produtos electrónicos simples como calculadoras, fontes de alimentação, relógios e assim por diante.

Double-Layer PCB board: Simple circuit structure type

The board that has two-sided copper layers to make circuits with the connection of components is called a double-sided or double-layered boards. This kind of PCB has a conductive layer and a solder mask on each side of a single base layer. Electronic components are soldered on both sides of the PCB. Conductive holes are drilled and used to interact with two conductive layers.

Vantagens do PCB de dupla face

  • Reduz o tamanho do PCB 
  • Aumenta a densidade do PCB 
  • Traz mais flexibilidade na concepção 
  • Mais eficientemente, permite a fabricação de desenhos complexos 
  • Económico, ajuda no encaminhamento onde há mais componentes e menos espaço livre
 
Aplicações comuns para estas placas são telefones, equipamento de teste, aplicações HVAC, e sistemas UPS, para citar algumas.

Multilayer PCB board: The most complex type of circuit structure

If the PCB has more than 2 conductive layers then such boards are called multilayer PCBs. Due to its unique Processo de fabrico de PCB, the number of layers in a PCB is usually an even number. The structure of these boards is like a sandwich that has many double-sided layers with insulation materials among them.  All layers are interconnected with the help conductive hole like in the case of a double-sided PCB. Higher layer counts are the basis for electronic engineers to design more complex products, while also making their jobs difficult.

Vantagens do Desenho de Quadros Multilayer

  • Aumentar a flexibilidade do design
  • É um pré-requisito para a produção de dispositivos electrónicos mais pequenos mas mais poderosos.
  • Layouts de alta velocidade que não podem ser conseguidos com placas de uma ou duas camadas podem ser conseguidos com este tipo de design
 
As placas de circuito multicamadas costumavam ser a primeira escolha para computadores de grande escala, mas com o desenvolvimento da tecnologia, tais computadores podem ser substituídos por clusters de muitos computadores comuns, e as placas de circuito impresso de camada ultra-alta não são favorecidas por ela. Estes PCB são agora utilizados em estruturas de circuitos complexos, tais como computadores tablet, dispositivos médicos, e localizadores GPS.

Types of PCB substrate materials

Existem diferentes tipos de materiais oferecidos pela Tecnologia FS para a criação de PCB que são aqui explicados. Quase todos os tipos de materiais utilizados no PCB podem ser encomendados por nós para serem utilizados nos seus projectos. Ajudaremos a seleccionar os materiais necessários para as necessidades do seu projecto e a configuração do design.

FR-4 Fiberglass board (High TG, Halogen-free)

Traditional FR-4 PCB: The full form of FR4 is flame retardant number 4 denotes the woven glass reinforced epoxy resin. Its main features are strength and resistance to moisture. It is used in PCB as an insulation provider and separates copper layers to make a connection with that enhances the strength of the boards.

High TG FR-4 PCB: High TG is a mechanical feature that denotes the glass transition that is the largest value of temperature for the substrate to maintain this state and not get affected by temperature. The value of conventional PCB having FR4 has TG value about 130 to 140 centigrade medium value for TG is 150 to 160 C and for high TG is larger than 170 centigrade. High TG boards come with a high value of heat absorbance ability and water resistance ability to normal FR4 PCB.

Halogen Free FR-4 PCB: Halogen-free material means that it does not contain halogen elements in the periodic table of elements including: fluorine (F), chlorine (CL), bromine (Br), iodine (1). Using halogen-free FR-4 PCB as your electronic components can prevent the release of toxic substances caused by circuit burning caused by PCB short circuit. In addition to being more secure, this type of circuit board also has the following advantages:

  • FR-4 halogen-free epoxy board has good heat resistance and can withstand the environment of up to 150°C
  • Extremely strong insulation performance, can withstand a breakdown voltage of 40KV
  • Excellent water absorption, moisture resistance makes it last longer

PCB type of metal substrate material (Aluminum/Copper)

We often say that metal PCB means that the internal substrate material is metal, that is, copper substrate or aluminum substrate. Next, we briefly introduce these two metal PCB types:

Aluminum base PCBs: This kind of board is consists of a thinner layer of the substance having conductive nature. Aluminum PCB is also called Aluminum bases, Aluminum clad. The structure of aluminum PCB is like any other type of board. It uses a copper layer over that solder mask and at top silkscreen for component connection is used. Although this type of printed circuit board is very common, in most cases it is constructed as a single layer or double layer, because the manufacture of multilayer aluminum PCBs is very difficult and complex. This board is often used in applications that require strong heat dissipation, such as LEDs, due to its good heat dissipation performance.

Cobre based PCBs: The most expensive type of metal circuit board with the highest quality heat dissipation. After they were invented, they are often used in high-frequency circuits, areas with large temperature differences, precision communication equipment, and construction industries. The composition of these boards is a 4-layer structure and its base material is called CCL. They are similar to FR4 board construction.

Polyimide: Comprehensive performance PCB type

The term polyimide is abbreviated as PI is an organic high molecular polymer material, which is composed of two parts, poly means polymer, imide means imide monomer and is produced by making these two different types of polymers. The heat resistance of this material can reach above 400 °C, the continuous high temperature resistance range is about 200-300 °C, and the dielectric loss is only 0.004-0.007, which belongs to F to H-level insulation. The common types of polyimide are 2nd Generation, 3rd Generation, and Filled Polyimide.

Ceramic substrate: PCB type with thermal conductivity up to about 220 W/M. K

The ceramic PCB is a printed wiring board with a thermal conductivity of 9-20 W/m.k prepared at less than 250 °C using thermally conductive ceramic powder and organic binders. In the manufacturing process of the ceramic substrate, the copper layer is attached to the alumina or SiC by applying high temperature. This board comes with features a high level of heat transfer than other boards with that has good electrical features. According to its constituent materials, this circuit board can be divided into three categories: alumina ceramic PCB, beryllium oxide ceramic PCB, aluminum nitride ceramic PCB. In addition, according to the proportion of alumina, it can be divided into 75%, 96%, and 99.5% alumina ceramic PCB.

Teflon: A kind of high frequency PCB material

Teflon PCB uses polytetrafluoroethylene or polytetrafluoroethylene as the base material, a synthetic resin material, this circuit board material is known for its non-stick and non-reactive surface. Teflon PCB material can easily handle high and low temperature environments, and is often regarded as the first choice for high-frequency electronic applications due to its low dissipation factor and low thermal expansion coefficient. It has the ability to communicate signals at frequencies above five gigahertz so the most common applications are radio frequency circuits and mmWave PCBA.

PTFEThe full form of PTFE is Polytetrafluoroethylene and used for Teflon PCB construction. Its common applications are high-speed electronics projects. For circuits where RF and microwave signals are used FR4 material board will be expensive and also lose signal so PTFE is a fine option. Since PTFE increases the dielectric constant value then is good over the FR4.

Rogers(4003/3003 /4730G3/4835T/4830/4350/5880)

Rogers PCB is a special type of circuit board, developed and manufactured by Rogers, mainly for high-speed and high-frequency applications. This board contains an epoxy resin core, metal clad copper and aluminum. Rogers PCB have a constant temperature value, lower dielectric loss, and also provide good dielectric strength to the board. We can use Rogers on FR4 for different dielectric constant values. The value of the dielectric constant is about 2.55-10.2.

Taconic PCB: One of the microwave radio frequency circuits

This is a circuit board that uses Taconic(TLX-8,TLX-9) as the substrate material, these substances are called ceramic filled PTFE. Taconic Corporation became a leading supplier to the food processing industry by pioneering the manufacture of PTFE coated fabrics and other high temperature/nonstick materials. Taconic PCB laminates can be milled, plated and sheared using standard methods. Like other high-frequency materials (Arlon, Rogers) Taconic laminates are microwave/RF PCB materials that are often used in telecommuting and aerospace projects.

Arlon: Premium high frequency board material type

Arlon(35N,85N) is PCB material that is used to make high operation laminations and prepreg materials that are used in different projects based on PCB. These materials offer good features such as thermal, and mechanical strength than the FR4. This substrate exists in different types like woven glass and non-woven aramid. Common applications are in the military used instruments, heat sinks, and HDI in some communication projects.

Panasonic: One of the largest electrical brands in Japan

The Panasonic R-5575 comes in multiple layers structure with fewer losses and high-speed halogen-free material. Its common projects are radio antenna. It used or miniaturizing of PCB boards. Its other features are good thermal behaviors and anti-aging factors. This material has resistance to water. Its surface resistance value is1 x 10^8 Ω.

CME 1: Materials for building a simple PCB

CME1 is a substrate material type used only for building industrial single-layer PCBs. The main reason for using CME 1 in single-layer boards is because it is a more cost-effective material, which is often used to make cheaper and simpler PCB boards. The construction of these materials is very simple and has the ability to bear a large number of components so many components for single layer PCB can be assembled on the board.

CME 3: Cost-effective printed circuit board material

Este material é utilizado para placas de duas camadas que vêm em cores brancas, e configurações epoxídicas de vidro. A sua resistência mecânica é inferior ao FR4, mas os preços são baixos e podem ser a melhor opção do que o FR4.

Types of PCBs differentiated by function

High frequency PCB: Types of circuits to solve signaling problems in electronics

High-frequency PCB is a high-end circuit board type used to solve the transmission of large amounts of data. The electronic products of this circuit board include the following common points:

  • Velocidade de transmissão do sinal superior a 12Gbps
  • Utilize este tipo de PCB de alta frequência
 

Características que o PCB de alta frequência deve ter

  • O valor DK é pequeno e estável. Demasiado elevado ou o valor DK flutua significativamente devido à mudança de frequência, o que provocará um atraso na transmissão do sinal.
  • Para este tipo de PCB, o valor DF é extra importante e a qualidade da transmissão do sinal é controlada por ele
  • The thermal expansion coefficient of this high frequency PCB should be the same as that of copper foil. If the two are different, the copper foil may be separated due to the alternating hot and cold phenomenon when the electronic product is running.
  • Baixa absorção de água. Quando esta placa de circuito funciona num ambiente húmido, absorverá a humidade do ar, e o resultado final é que os valores de DK e DF são afectados.
  • Boa resistência ao calor, resistência química, resistência ao impacto, resistência à descasca, este requisito é quase o mesmo que outros tipos de PCB.
 

Materiais que podem ser utilizados para fazer este PCB

  • Rogers 4350B HF, RO3001, RO3003
  • ISOLA IS620 Fibra de Vidro Electrónico
  • Cerâmica Taconic RF-35
  • TLX Taconic
 

Cenários de aplicação de PCB de alta frequência

  • Linha de dados de alta frequência
  • Sistema de Radar Automotivo
  • Sistema de telecomunicação celular
  • Amplificadores de potência e Antenas
  • Ligações ponto-a-ponto de microondas ponto-a-ponto da banda E
  • Etiquetas RFID
  • mmWave applications

IMS PCB: Types of Enhanced Standby Time

As PCBA companies gradually attach importance to the thermal management performance of PCBs, IMS PCB, a circuit board type with efficient thermal management capabilities, has begun to be respected. Due to this unique advantage, IMS PCBA can maximize the power of electronic products. The following are the advantages and application areas of this type of PCB board summarized by FS Technology:

Vantagens deste tipo de placa de circuito impresso:

  • Excelente condutividade térmica: A condutividade térmica do substrato de alumínio IMS é 8-12 vezes superior à do FR-4, e a condutividade térmica é tão elevada como 2,2/m-K
  • Eficiência de dissipação de calor óbvia: A utilização da tecnologia de montagem de PCB SMT pode reduzir o volume do produto acabado ao aumentar a densidade dos componentes, mas faz com que o PCB perca a sua capacidade de dissipação de calor. Os substratos metálicos isolados IMS são especialistas na resolução destas deficiências. A utilização deste tipo de placa de circuito desempenha um papel importante na dissipação do calor gerado pelo funcionamento dos componentes electrónicos e na aceleração da redução da temperatura de funcionamento dos componentes electrónicos.
  • Capacidade de transporte de corrente ultra-grande: Para o substrato metálico da IMS, pode transportar uma corrente mais elevada com a mesma espessura e a mesma largura de traço, permitindo a utilização de uma tensão de 4500V
  • Material de Substrato Premium: Este tipo de PCB é tipicamente preenchido com óxido de alumínio, nitreto de alumínio, nitreto de boro, óxido de magnésio, ou óxido de silício

HDI PCB: Circuit type designed for compact electronic equipment

This type of circuit board adopts high-density interconnection technology, uses a traditional double-sided PCB as the substrate, and is formed by multiple layers of lamination. Compared with traditional FR-4 circuits, this board has the advantages of being thinner, lighter, smaller and denser. With the change of the tendency to use electronic products, electronics manufacturers strengthen their micro vias, line width, line spacing, and pad manufacturing capabilities, and transform to HDI PCB. This type of circuit board is often used in high-end control systems.

Resumir

Os diferentes tipos de placas de circuitos impressos que a Tecnologia FS pode produzir explicam muito. Estamos a oferecer serviços baseados em PCB com grande precisão e características de alta qualidade, uma vez que é um fornecedor fiável de PCB na indústria que oferece serviços de fabrico de PCB de acordo com os requisitos e exigências dos utilizadores. A Tecnologia FS está a servir como solução one-stop PCBA prestador de serviços e também um gestor de projectos no estrangeiro. Estamos equipados com engenheiros profissionais e as mais recentes máquinas que são normalmente utilizadas na indústria de PCB para criar PCBs profissionais.

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