The working principle of pcb board

For the newcomers, they don’t know what a pcb is? Why use printed circuit boards? How pcb works? How to realize pcb manufacturing? For such groups, FS Technology will help you understand the working principle of circuit boards from basic to in-depth.

PCB Basic Knowledge

PCB is the abbreviation of printed circuit board, PCBA is the abbreviation of Printed Circuit Board Assembly. PCB VS PCBA is essentially different. Many people will confuse the concept of the two.. Usually we call the conductive pattern formed by the combination of the circuit and the printed component on the insulating material according to the predetermined design as the printed circuit.It can be seen everywhere in our daily life, and all electronic devices we use are inseparable from it, such as electronic watches, calculators, military weapon systems, aerospace equipment.Whenever your electronic equipment has integrated circuits or other electronic components, the pcb is used to make the electrical connections between them, and it does this through the flow of current between the components.

The origin of printed circuit boards

With printed circuit boards taking absolute control in the electronics industry, more and more attention is being paid to how circuit boards work. The development of PCB is very rapid. It only took a century to never know what is a pcb, understand how pcb board works, and finally become the core of the electronics industry.

The circuit board was invented as early as 1936 by the Austrian Paul Eisler. The US military used this technology in military radios. As the technology became better known in the USA, in 1948, the working principle of pcb was recognised and it was used for commercial purposes. From the mid-1950s onwards, printed circuit boards became commonplace in everyday life.

How the different pcb boards work

PCBs are made by isolating the surface copper foil conductive layer through the board base insulation material, which allows current to flow through various components along a pre-designed route, ultimately achieving functions such as power making, amplification, attenuation, modulation, demodulation and coding.This professional expression comes from the pcb org website, and FS Technology will explain its principle to you in a more popular way.

How a single layer pcb works

A single-sided PCB is the most basic type of printed circuit board, a board where electronic components as well as wires are present on only one side. Because of the many strict requirements for designing the wiring for single-sided boards, only early circuits used this type of board.

Single layer PCB is a plastic board covered with glass fibre. It works by mounting components on a non-conductive board via PCB SMT or PCB DIP technology and connecting them via small paths called traces. The traces allow the electrical components on the entire board to function by energising them. If you don’t know what is smt, we also have an article dedicated to this knowledge in our blog.

How double-sided and multi-layer printed circuit boards work

Multilayer circuit boards are boards in which guide lines appear on both sides of the circuit board through “bridges”. This “bridge” between circuits is called a pcb via. That is, on a PCB, small holes filled or painted with metal. These vias connect the wires of each layer to each other, thereby connecting multiple components and realizing the work of multi-layer boards.

The working principle of double-sided and multi-layer circuit boards is to introduce process gas (Ar, N2, O2, etc.) in the high vacuum link, and the gas is ionized into plasma. Under the action of the electric field, these plasmas move toward high potential and low potential respectively . The atomic groups moving toward the low potential bombard the target (copper), so that the copper atoms are stripped from the copper, and finally covered on the substrate (FRP), that is, the copper clad laminate. This is a traditional physical method, which has the advantages of no pollution and mature technology. The disadvantage is that the efficiency is slow and the cycle is long. If you want to realize this process quickly, you can lay the etched pattern in advance, and then form the PCB in the above way, and the inner hole for connection can also be plated with metal copper to make it metallized.

The above is FS Technology’s summary of “how circuit board printing works”, we will continue to work hard to update more pcb knowledge in the PCBA blog as fast as possible!

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