High Voltage Printed Circuit Board Design and Manufacturing

Table des matières

INTRODUCTION TO HIGH VOLTAGE PCB

High Voltage Printed Circuit Board design refers to the phenomenon of voltage levels that exceed the standard operating voltages for electronic devices. When we talk about “high-voltage PCB,” we usually think about the voltage range in KV, either in AC or DC. A high-voltage PCB works at higher voltages than the normal voltage. Mains-powered power supply inverters, heavy industrial machinery, and electrical vehicle chargers are good examples of high-voltage PCBs. A suitable voltage level for a high-voltage PCB starts at 100 volts. This is normal voltage for carte de circuit imprimé operation. However, exceeding 100 volts need extra design consideration that you would crucially need to consider while designing the PCB, specifically for industrial systems. Except for this special consideration of PCB for High voltage can cause device damage, catch fire, malfunction, and result in major accidents.

FS Tech PCB provides a wide range of printed circuit board design, assembly, and manufacturing solutions for high voltages to support your electronic devices and systems. With our innovative, advanced High voltage PCB solutions, we are here to help grow and support your high-voltage and high-current applications.

High Voltage PCB Assembly

Key considerations of High voltage printed circuit Board Design

Reduce Arcing

PCB designers must know and consider the component ratings they are using on the circuit board, which vary depending on the voltage levels. If you are working with high voltage for system design, then it makes sense to keep them safe from affecting the performance of other components.
The useful method is to isolate the high-voltage areas to keep the device safe and reduce arcing. These steps can help you reduce the arching while working with high-voltage Conception et fabrication de circuits imprimés.

  • Circuit Grouping:
  • Use high-dielectric-strength materials:
  • Implement physical barriers:
  • The best method is to physically isolate “High Voltage areas” to reduce arching by adding an insert to the desired areas of the circuit board from the rest of the Assemblage de PCB

Noise Source Isolation

In high voltage printed circuit board design, effective isolation of noise sources is important. To ensure the reliability and better performance of electronic devices and circuits, the best approach is to implement separate ground planes strategically isolating different parts of the circuit to avoid the coupling of ground currents and reduce potential noise transmission.
Also, the implementation of techniques such as ground isolation devices and star grounding can further reduce the effect of high-frequency noise on PCB design and assembly. Protecting sensitive parts within enclosures adds an additional layer of safeguarding against external electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference (RFI).
The implementation of EMI and RFI-protecting materials helps in the innovative design that successfully isolates and reduces noise sources, ensuring the performance reliability and integrity of high-voltage PCB’s. 

Strengthen the isolation slots

Strengthening the isolation slots in high voltage printed circuit board design is also considerable for avoiding arching and ensuring robust electrical isolation between different parts of this circuit. This enhances the physical barriers that separate conductive elements. Furthermore, the selection of material for the slot boundaries is important. High-dielectric-strength materials with better insulation characteristics contribute to the strength of the isolation.

  • Simulation tools can be used to calculate the efficiency of isolation slots.
  • Strengthening Physical structure and material considerations of isolation slots can help designers evaluate the isolation strength of a high-voltage PCB
High Voltage PCB Slots (1)

Rigidité diélectrique

Dielectric strength is the basic property of an insulating material and a significant factor in designing high-voltage PCB applications. It shows the maximum electric field that a component can bear without facing any electrical breakdown. In simple words, dielectric strength is the measure of a material’s ability to resist the flow of electronic current under the effect of a high voltage. Selecting materials with an efficient dielectric strength is very important to protect the PCB circuit from any unintended electrical fault or breakdown.


The appropriate dielectric strength indicates that the PCB material can operate properly under a maximum electrical field without losing any insulating characteristics.

Solder Mask Application

A masque de soudure is a protective layer implemented on the surface of the PCB to avoid soldier bridges and unintended connections between conductive traces. It is a process that is an essential part of Conception de circuits imprimés and manufacturing and contributes to the better performance and reliability of electronic devices. It prevents soldering faults and also protects the printed circuit board surface layer.

Clearance and Creepage Considerations

Important design considerations for a high-voltage PCB include clearance and creepage considerations. They help in avoiding electrical breakdowns and ensuring the safety and reliability of electronic circuits, specifically in high-voltage PCB applications.

Clearance is the shortest air distance between the two conductor parts or between a grounding shield and the conductive part. The key importance of Clearance factor in high-voltage PCB is:

  • Reduce Arching
  • Minimizing Dielectric Breakdown

There are some factors that affect clearance, which ultimately affect the performance of high-voltage PCBs.

  • Voltage Variation
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Propriétés des matériaux

 

Creepage is the shortest path along the surface layer of an insulation material between conductive sections of a high-voltage PCB. It is a technique for evaluating the shortest distance between conductive parts on a high-voltage PCB. The measuring process is different from clearance. As it evaluates the distance along the surface of the insulation material instead of air. Importance

  • Reducing Surface Leakage
  • Enhancing Insulation

 

Enhancing high-voltage PCB Creepage.

  • Add a vertical layer( barrier) of insulation or sloe between tracks.
  • Mitigate the penetration of moisture and dust. As it shortens the creepage distance.

 

Material Selection for Developing High-Voltage PCB

Selecting the best material for high voltage printed circuit board design and administration requires refinement to ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of the electronic system. High-voltage applications require materials and components with proper electrical and thermal properties.

Substrate Material:

  • FR-4, commonly named Flame Retardant 4, is used for low- to normal-voltage applications.

Polyimide is used for high-temperature applications, supporting thermal stability. Often used in aerospace systems where higher reliability is required.

Matériau du substrat

Copper Thickness:

Select a proper copper thickness according to current carrying capacity and thermal factors. Thicker copper layers can easily support higher currents.

Surface Finish:

It ensures better solderability and reduces the risk of surface layer breakdown when designing high-voltage PCBs.

What is the Voltage Rating for High Voltage PCBs?

The voltage rating of printed cartes de circuits imprimés varies according to system and device specifications. For automotive systems, the high voltage ranges from 30 to 100 volts (AC) and 60 to 1500 volts (DC). However, since a voltage level of 50 volts or above is very unsafe and dangerous, even sometimes fatal for us,

For automotive systems, the high voltage is 30–1000V for AC and 60–1500V for DC. However, since a voltage of 50V or more can be quite dangerous, even fatal, for most people it is safe to adopt this level to define high voltage PCBs, generically.

High voltage PCBs Application

They are used in a diverse range of applications on multiple systems and devices. The use of high-voltage PCBs contributes to advanced electronic systems and has a significant role in powering and controlling heavy industry machinery and electronics devices. They are widely used in,

  • Power Supplies and Converters:
  • Electric Vehicle (EV) Chargers
  • Industrial High-Frequency Equipment
  • Particle Accelerators
  • High-Voltage Testing Equipment:
  • Aerospace and Defense Systems

Conclusion

In conclusion, the design and fabrication of high-voltage PCBs require serious attention to a few critical factors to ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of electronic systems and devices. The selection of proper materials with high dielectric strength, proper voltage levels, suitable ratings, and resistance to environmental conditions is essential for the design and manufacturing of high-voltage PCBs. The design, planning, and manufacturing of a high voltage printed circuit board require a high level of accuracy. Designers can simply achieve a long-lasting circuit board if they follow basic guidelines, regulations, and best practices for designing, manufacturing, and assembling high-voltage PCBs.

Furthermore, selecting a Best and Reliable PCB manufacturer is very essential in the case of high-voltage PCB design and assembly. As the risk of accidents and fatalities increased in systems with poor quality and inadequate considerations of high-voltage PCBs. PCB designers should carefully consider creepage and clearance distances to reduce arcing and maintain the proper electrical isolation required.

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