DIP Package Comprehensive Guide to Assist Your PCBA Project
In the early stages of circuit systems, an integrated circuit (IC chip) was commonly encased in diverse proprietary packages, resulting in challenges with component interchangeability and impeding large-scale production. Recognizing this issue, Fairchild Semiconductor took a significant step in 1964 by introducing the concept of the DIP Package. This standardized packaging solution for IC was initially developed as a 14-pin package, catering to the requirements of small-form-factor integrated (SSI) devices. FS Technology aims to provide a comprehensive explanation of this packaging form to assist you with your PCBA project.
What is DIP?
DIP is the abbreviation of the dual in-line package, also referred to as DIL (Dual In-Line), and is a standardized packaging format used for electronic component packaging, particularly for integrated circuits and other electronic devices. It consists of a rectangular shell with two rows of parallel electrical connection pins. In the PCBA industry, different countries may have varying technical terminology. In China, for example, the assembly method involving plug-ins is referred to as DIP assembly rather than THT assembly.
DIP IC packages find widespread usage in various electronic components within PCBA projects, including microcontrollers, memory chips, operational amplifiers, and digital logic ICs. They provide a convenient and reliable means of connecting IC chips to printed circuit boards.
Producing high-quality PCBA boards is a labor-intensive process involving inspection, testing, mounting, and soldering. DIP is known to contribute to cost reduction, improved accuracy, and increased productivity. It facilitates easier and faster assembly and inspection throughout the entire PCBA process.
DIP assembly entails the mass production of solder connections by immersing a PCB with mounted components into a tin pot. The package’s pins are arranged in parallel, facing downward and protruding from the bottom plane of the package. Sufficient pin length is provided to enable insertion through holes in the PCB and subsequent soldering on the other side. This process typically follows SMT (Surface Mount Technology), thus DIP component soldering is also referred to as “DIP soldering” or “DIP post-soldering.”
This packaging method is commonly employed for small to medium-sized integrated circuits, typically with around 100 pins. CPU chips packaged in DIP format feature two rows of pins that need to be inserted into the DIP chip socket. Alternatively, they can be directly inserted into a circuit board with corresponding solder holes. Care must be taken when plugging and unplugging chips with DIP PCBA technology to avoid damaging the pins.
DIP IC Package Style
PDIP, short for “Plastic Dual In-Line Package,” is a type of packaging utilized for electronic components. The primary material used in PDIP is plastic, offering excellent electrical insulation properties, as well as the benefits of lightweight construction and cost-effectiveness. These attributes contribute to enhanced reliability of PCBA boards. Thermosetting plastics such as epoxy or phenolic resins are commonly employed as plastic materials in PDIP packaging.
The term “SPDIP” stands for “Shrink Small Outline Package,” also known as “Shrink Plastic Dual Inline Package.” It represents an advancement over the conventional DIP chip package, is a widely used packaging style for integrated circuits. The key distinction between DIP and SPDIP lies in their size. SPDIP packages have reduced physical dimensions, enabling greater component density on circuit boards and efficient space utilization. As a result, SPDIP offers improved miniaturization while maintaining the functionality and performance of the IC.
SDIP, which stands for “Shrink Dual Inline Package,” is an IC package type that shares similarities with the SPDIP package but features a smaller physical size. SDIP packages possess a rectangular shape with two rows of pins or leads positioned along the longer sides, much like SPDIP packages. However, SDIP packages are specifically designed to be more compact, enabling higher component density and optimal utilization of board space. This reduction in size contributes to increased efficiency and miniaturization in electronic designs.
The CerDIP (Ceramic Dual Inline Package) represents a specialized variant of the DIP package integrated circuits format, distinguished by its utilization of ceramic material instead of plastic. The CerDIP package is particularly suitable for IC that demand heightened reliability, exceptional thermal performance, or robust resistance to adverse environmental conditions.
Highlighted below are notable characteristics of CerDIP:
- High Reliability: The implementation of ceramic material in the CerDIP package confers superior resistance to environmental elements, including moisture, chemicals, and extreme temperature variations, surpassing the capabilities of plastic packages. Consequently, CerDIP finds extensive employment in critical applications where long-term reliability and performance are imperative, such as aerospace, military, and industrial sectors.
- Thermal Considerations: The ceramic composition of the CerDIP package enables efficient dissipation of heat, rendering it well-suited for IC that generates substantial heat during operation. The enhanced thermal conductivity facilitates the maintenance of lower operating temperatures, contributing to heightened reliability and extended lifespan of the integrated circuits.
The term “Metal DIP” is not widely recognized in the electronics industry and does not represent a specific package type or standard. However, based on its name, it could allude to a DIP PCB package that incorporates metal components or features.
Traditional DIP packages typically consist of a plastic or ceramic body with metal leads or pins. These pins or leads are commonly crafted from metal alloys like copper or steel, providing electrical conductivity and mechanical stability. However, the primary body of the package is typically composed of plastic or ceramic materials.
It is important to note that there are variations of DIP that incorporate metal components or features for specific purposes, such as enhancing thermal performance or providing electromagnetic shielding. Here are a couple of examples:
Metal-Clad DIP: In certain cases, a DIP PCB assembly may integrate a metal heat sink or a metal layer affixed to the top of the plastic or ceramic body. This metal layer aids in dissipating heat generated by the integrated circuit, thereby improving its thermal performance.
Shielded DIP: Specific DIP may incorporate metal shielding, often in the form of a metal can or cover, to offer electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. This shielding helps mitigate the transmission or reception of electromagnetic signals that could potentially interfere with the operation of the integrated circuit or surrounding components.
These variations should be understood as modifications to the conventional DIP design, designed to enhance specific characteristics or meet particular application requirements, rather than representing standard dual in-line packages.
Do PCBA Project Require DIP Packaging
- Streamlined Prototyping: During the initial stages of PCBA projects, prototyping and development play a crucial role. The DIP packaging format simplifies this phase due to its through-hole design, facilitating manufacturers in effortless insertion and removal of components on the PCB. It also facilitates testing and modifications to circuits throughout the design process.
- Extensive Compatibility: DIP has enjoyed widespread adoption in the past, leading to the availability of numerous electronic components in DIP format. This compatibility factor enables convenient replacement or upgrading of components, as well as seamless integration with standard breadboards and prototyping boards.
- Enhanced Durability: DIP PCBA generally exhibit robustness in comparison to SMT assembly. The thicker leads of DIP components enable their insertion through holes in the PCB, resulting in improved mechanical stability and resistance to mechanical stress. This characteristic renders them well-suited for applications subject to vibrations or mechanical shocks.
- Effective Heat Dissipation: DIP components, particularly those featuring ceramic or metal bodies, excel in dissipating heat compared to certain SMD components. The through-hole mounting configuration facilitates improved airflow around the component, promoting efficient heat transfer and mitigating the risk of overheating.
- Expanded Dimensions: DIP is generally characterized by larger physical sizes compared to SMD, which can impose limitations in space-constrained designs. The larger footprint may also result in reduced component density on the PCBA board.
- Manual Assembly Requirement: The installation of DIP components on a PCB necessitates manual soldering, a process that can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, particularly in high volume PCB assembly. In contrast, SMT PCB assembly can be accomplished through automated pick-and-place machines, enabling faster and more cost-effective manufacturing processes.
- Pin Count Limitations: Dual inline packages typically exhibit a restricted number of pins, this constraint can be a drawback when working with complex integrated circuits that demand a high pin count.
- Signal Integrity Considerations: The extended leads and through-hole mounting characteristic of DIP IC components can introduce additional parasitic effects, such as inductance and capacitance, which may impact signal integrity, particularly at higher frequencies. Surface-mount packages featuring shorter interconnects and optimized layouts often offer superior high-frequency performance.
DIP Package Alternatives
In response to the growing trend of electronic miniaturization, various new technologies have emerged as alternatives to traditional DIP-packages. These technologies offer advantages such as smaller size, increased pin count, enhanced electrical and thermal performance, and higher integration. Leveraging these technologies effectively can help address the requirements of smaller, faster, and more integrated electronic devices. Here are some notable examples:
- Chip Scale Package (CSP): An ultra-compact package that allows direct mounting of the chip onto the circuit board without the need for separate pins. This enables a significant reduction in size and enhanced integration.
- Ball Grid Array (BGA): BGA employs ball joints to establish robust solder connections between the PCB and the chip. This enables the chip to have a higher density of pins, resulting in improved electrical performance and increased functionality.
- Quad Flat No-leads (QFN): This package features pins on the bottom surface that connect to the PCB through pads. QFN packages offer a lower profile height, superior heat dissipation performance, and are well-suited for applications with space constraints and thermal management requirements.
- Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC): Widely recognized as a common replacement for DIP packages, SOIC packages strike a balance between cost and performance, making them a popular choice in various applications.
- System-in-Package (SiP): SiP technology integrates multiple components, such as chips, capacitors, and resistors, into a single package, forming a complete functional module. SiP packages are ideal for highly integrated projects requiring seamless coordination among different functionalities.
- 3D Packaging: This technique involves stacking multiple packaging layers together to enhance space efficiency and integration. By utilizing the vertical dimension, 3D packaging enables higher component density while conserving board space.
DIP Component Package Socket Selection
DIP sockets play a crucial role in establishing a detachable connection between DIP components and printed circuit boards. They enable effortless insertion and removal of components without the need for soldering, making them highly valuable in applications that require frequent component replacement or testing. Here are some notable types of DIP sockets available:
- Standard Sockets: These sockets are the most commonly used and come in various sizes and pin configurations to accommodate different DIP package sizes, such as 8, 14, 16, 20, 24, 28, 40, and more. They consist of a plastic body with spring contacts or metal clips that securely hold the DIP leads.
- ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) Sockets: Are specifically designed to minimize stress on DIP components during insertion and removal. They feature a lever or actuator that opens and closes the socket’s contacts, allowing components to be effortlessly inserted or removed. ZIF sockets are particularly beneficial when dealing with sensitive or delicate DIP.
- Low Profile Sockets: These sockets have a smaller form factor, making them ideal for space-constrained applications. While they maintain the same pin configuration as standard DIP package sockets, their shorter height allows for efficient space utilization on the PCB.
- High-Reliability Sockets: Designed to meet the stringent requirements of applications demanding robust electrical connections and long-term reliability, these sockets incorporate enhanced contact materials or designs. They ensure a stable electrical connection, withstand higher insertion and removal cycles, and exhibit superior tolerance to environmental factors.
- Anti-Aging Sockets: Also known as burn-in sockets, these sockets are specially designed for the aging test of DIP. They can endure high-temperature environments and provide a reliable electrical connection during the testing process.
- Programmable Sockets: Often referred to as “universal” or “configurable” sockets, these sockets are designed to support different pin configurations, facilitating easy programming or reprogramming of DIP components. They find extensive use in development and prototyping environments.
DIP PCBA Process
For PCBA manufacturers, the installation of dual in-line package components on the circuit board typically involves the use of manual or automatic DIP plug-in machines. The assembly process must adhere to the following steps with strict attention to detail:
- Orientation Identification: Examine the DIP component to locate the notch or dot on one end. This marking usually indicates Pin 1, which is crucial for determining the correct component orientation. Ensure that the PCB also features a corresponding mark to indicate the correct placement location.
- Pre-bending Leads (Optional): If the leads of the component are excessively long or not pre-bent, they can be gently bent to a right angle using fingers or pliers. This facilitates aligning the leads with the PCB holes and helps hold the components in place during the soldering process.
- Manual Insertion: Position the component on the PCB, aligning the leads with their corresponding holes. Apply light pressure on the component to ensure that all leads pass through the holes without bending or overlapping adjacent pads.
- DIP Plug-in Machine: Develop the PCB assembly program based on the design and Bill of Materials (BoM) files, and then initiate the machine to automatically complete the DIP PCBA assembly process.
- Manual Soldering: Heat the soldering iron to the appropriate temperature, and place the iron’s tip on both the pad and the lead to establish good contact. Introduce a small amount of solder wire into the joint until a smooth, shiny connection is formed. Repeat this process for each lead.
- Soldering Machine: While reflow soldering may be employed in specific cases, wave soldering is typically used for DIP components. The pins of components are usually arranged in a straight line with a larger pitch, and wave soldering offers a cost-effective solution to reduce PCBA project costs.
- Lead Trimming: Once all the leads are soldered, employ pliers or flat-nose pliers to trim the excess length of the leads near the solder joints. Exercise caution to avoid damaging the board or nearby components during the trimming process.
- Cleaning and Inspection: Utilize a cleaning agent or isopropyl alcohol to eliminate any flux residue from the PCBA board. Inspect the solder joints to ensure their proper formation and the absence of bridges (shorts) or dry joints. Reheat and rework any unsatisfactory connections as necessary.
Why FS Technology Electronic DIP Assembly
FS Technology has been serving the electronic industry for many years and has a wealth of knowledge in DIP processing. As the best turnkey PCB assembly service company in China, we have served many projects in the welding machine and energy industry as well as the power control industry. The common theme of these projects is that the proportion of DIP processing on PCBA is relatively large. If you have specific demands for your printed circuit boards, our process engineers are available to discuss DIP electronic assembly technology in-depth. We guarantee on-time deliveries and, most importantly, the best possible customer service. DIP plug-in is an important part of the PCB assembly and determines the quality of the PCBA processing. Next, let us show you our capabilities:
DIP Assembly Line Scale
- Full facilities from through-hole fabrication to DIP PCB assembly;
- Comprehensive circuit board component procurement including SMD components, DIP components, integrated circuits, etc.
- 7 fully automatic DIP PCBA lines (including plug-ins, repairs, hand soldering wires and lead-free solder pots, etc.) that can mass produce 25,000 pieces of DIP ordinary products per month (minimum);
- In addition to quality control, FS Technology also pays attention to staff training, and currently has 300+ professional production staff;
- Coexistence of manual assembly and automatic assembly;
- Ceramic Dual In-line Package (CERDIP or CDIP)
- Plastic Dual In-line Package (PDIP)
- Shrink Plastic Dual In-line Package (SPDIP)
- Kinny Dual In-line Package (SDIP or SPDIP)
- And More
- Strictly control the DIP pass-through rate;
- Workers with strict training, to control Productivity and quality;
- Strict IPQC and QA LOT sampling standards to ensure the reliability of DIP processing;
- Before the plug-in, checks are done on the surface cleanliness of electronic components to detect oil stains, paint and other problems;
- During the plug-in, it is ensured that the electronic components are closed on the PCBA to avoid unevenness and to uncover soldering pads well;
- If there is a direct indication on the surface of electronic components, we make sure that it is plugged in the correct direction;
- Attention is paid to the power strength of the plug-in components and to the PCB to avoid any damage due to excessive strength;
- Electronic components are not beyond the edge of any PCB board/frame, and we pay attention to the height and spacing between electronic components.
- Multiple PCB testing guarantee services: manual testing, AOI testing, X-RAY testing, aging testing, flying probe testing, etc.
DIP packaging has a rich legacy in the PCBA industry and continues to be utilized today. Despite the manual-intensive nature of DIP insertion, which demands substantial labor and may result in higher failure rates due to fatigue and other factors, the electronics processing industry still heavily relies on DIP technology. Presently, SMD adoption accounts for approximately 70% of the market. However, achieving automatic insertion for projects involving large-scale components, such as industrial control boards, remains challenging. Consequently, DIP processing technology is continuously advancing, with notable developments in automated DIP assembly equipment enabling mass production, as exemplified by companies like FS Technology.
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